Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about theSocial Policy, Social Justice and Change. Answer: Settlement of Issues for Refugees Coming to Canada from Situations of Forced Displacement People who are compelled to leave their countries under the fear of persecution and are unable to return home are called refugees. Several refugees undergo dreadful experiences and therefore are forced to leave their own country. The refugees belong to the marginalized group and often face challenges relating to violence, starvation and, in particular, education. The marginalized group are denied equal and full access to the economic, cultural, political and social institutions of the society and are powerless (Lacroix, Baffoe Liguori, 2015). It is a well-known fact that the socially powerful groups have an easy access to all the privileges of a society as compared to the less powerful groups who easily become subject to social oppression (Edge, Newbold McKeary, 2014). Social oppression may be termed as social exploitation of a group of people. The social oppression continues to exist in the society, mostly because it is not recognized by most of the individuals. Consequently, these inequalities become permanent as the oppressed group hardly has access to the social privileges that would prevent them from being mistreated. Social marginalization may be defined as a phenomena wherein a certain group of individuals are deprived of the rights and opportunities that are otherwise, available to a member or members of another group and such rights are elementary to the social integration within that other group. Such rights include employment opportunities, housing, healthcare facilities, participation in decision-making proce ss and other civil rights. Social work practices can be divided into three categories that aims at resolving the issues related to social oppression carried out on a micro and macro level that has been discussed below: Macro level The social work involved on the macro level is extending help to the clients through intervention in big and powerful systems like the health care law system, educational system, promoting social policy reforms, etc (Ott Montgomery, 2015). Macro social practices are often resorted to in order to address mezzo or micro social issues. The main objective of the macro social practices is to make the less powerful groups or the marginalized groups participate in the change that is brought in the system (Netting et al., 2016). This level concentrates on institutionalized form of oppression, which demonstrates the fact, that how the people within the more powerful group are capable of taking advantage of the privileges in order to retain their power. Institutional oppression takes place when the law, practices and customs demonstrates inequalities towards the less powerful groups (Rothman Mizrahi, 2014). The instances of social oppression on the macro level may include the huge differences that may take place in the health care systems, education systems, etc. Micro level- The social work practiced on this level is usually considered as the most common kind of social works. The social worker on this level involves the individuals and their families in order to resolve the issues that are often faced by the marginalized groups. The social workers take into consideration that takes place in the daily lives of the marginalized groups (Harrison, VanDeusen Way, 2016). Mezzo level- The social works on this level are conducted within the small and medium sized groups. The instances of mezzo social practices include managing social organization, organization of the community, to bring about changes in the institutions or culture instead of the individuals. The social workers, who address issues on the mezzo level, also participate in the social works conducted on the macro and the micro level. The social workers aim at meeting the challenges and the requirements of the individuals and focuses on resolving larger social issues. The Isms Classism, Ageism, Sexism, Racism, Heterosexism and Anti-Semitism are some forms of oppressions that purport to retain power and control. Several authors have defined the isms as a social phenomena that defines a particular norm based on which each individual shall be judged. This norm is supported by institutional or individual violence that retains oppression in the society. Each of the isms possesses the ability to destroy lives by causing discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, gender and class. For instance- sexism states that every woman who tries to step out of the rules of patriarchy is expected to be hated. Similarly, racism refers to the belief some races are superior to other races based on their cultural characteristics and respective hereditary factors. Classism denotes that certain groups of individuals are subjected to prejudicial conduct for belonging to a specific social, political and economical status (Miley, O'Melia DuBois, 2016). Social Policies Addressing the Issues Related to the Marginalized Groups The social service non-profit organizations (NPOs) in Canada work in alliance with the marginalized groups in order to attain healthier communities by rendering social service and through policy advocacy. Some of the policy initiatives introduced by the NPOs do not include the marginalized groups. However, there are certain policies that involve the marginalized group of people. Some of them include the low-cost transit policy, domestic violence act, child welfare geographical boundaries, city anti-violence by law, extrajudicial sanctions for youth, provincial social assistance policies, etc. The social policy advocacy of the NPOs focuses on the reforming or modifying the prevailing government policies on behalf of or with the marginalized group of people. The advocacy strategies adopted by the NPOs include public conducting awareness program with the help of the media, interactions with the policymakers and, lastly, obtaining legal aid from the courts. In Canada, there are various social and humanitarian programs for the marginalized group, in particular, the refugees. The refugees who leave their homes because of the immense hardships that they have undergone are compelled to dwell in refugee camps for years. Canada being one of the members of the international community conducts programs and implements policies in order to resolve the issues related to the refugees (Fook, 2016). Canada works in collaboration with the United Resettlement Assistance Program (UNHCR) for the resettlement of the refugees. The legal framework of Canada stipulates that all the resettlement cases must be scrutinized vigilantly to prevent any criminal, health and security issues relating to the refugees. The Immigration Refugees Citizenship Canada (IRCC) deals with the resettlement cases in associating with the Canada Border Services Agency. The individuals and families that are nominated under the Government-Assisted Refugees (GAR) program become entitled to the essential services and financial assistance under the Resettlement Assistance Program (RAP). The financial assistance is provided to the individuals for a period of one year or till they find a source of earning, whichever is earlier. The financial assistance provided under RAP enables the refugees to afford food and shelter for themselves. The other essential services provided by RAP include temporary accommodation, providing relevant information about other provincial and federal programs regarding settlement services (Thompson, 2016). The Canadian Federal government has taken several initiatives to provide assistance to the marginalized groups, in particular the refugees. However, these initiatives have not proved to be completely effective because they are single-variable initiatives, which are incapable of reaching out to the intended population, and they are inefficient in resolving all the issues (Rubin Babbie, 2016). For the purpose of uprooting an issue or addressing a crisis, in particular, an unrelenting one, it might take a considerable period of time. However, effective implementation of policies that aims at addressing all the social problems relating to health, housing, education and human rights shall ensure well being of the society as a whole. Reference List Edge, S., Newbold, K. B., McKeary, M. (2014). Exploring socio-cultural factors that mediate, facilitate, constrain the health and empowerment of refugee youth.Social science medicine,117, 34-41. Fook, J. (2016).Social work: A critical approach to practice. Sage. Harrison, J., VanDeusen, K., Way, I. (2016). Embedding Social Justice within Micro Social Work Curricula.Smith College Studies in Social Work,86(3), 258-273. Lacroix, M., Baffoe, M., Liguori, M. (2015). Refugee community organizations in Canada: From the margins to the mainstream? A challenge and opportunity for social workers.International Journal of Social Welfare,24(1), 62-72. Miley, K. K., O'Melia, M. W., DuBois, B. L. (2016).Generalist social work practice: An empowering approach. Pearson. Netting, F. E., Kettner, P. M., McMurtry, S. L., Thomas, M. L. (2016).Social work macro practice. Pearson. Ott, E., Montgomery, P. (2015). Interventions to improve the economic self-sufficiency and well-being of resettled refugees: a systematic review.Campbell Systematic Reviews,11(4). Rothman, J., Mizrahi, T. (2014). Balancing micro and macro practice: A challenge for social work.Social Work, swt067. Rubin, A., Babbie, E. R. (2016).Empowerment Series: Research Methods for Social Work. Cengage Learning. Thompson, N. (2016).Anti-discriminatory practice: Equality, diversity and social justice. Palgrave Macmillan.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
International Research Journal of Finance and Economics ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 39 (2010) Ã © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010 http://www. eurojournals. com/finance. htm Issues in SME Development in Ghana and South Africa Joshua Abor Department of Finance University of Ghana Business School, Legon Peter Quartey Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research University of Ghana, Legon Abstract This paper discusses the characteristics, contributions of SMEs to economic development, and the constraints to SME development in developing countries with particular reference to Ghana and South Africa. SMEs in Ghana have been noted to provide about 85% of manufacturing employment of Ghana. They are also believed to contribute about 70% to GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP and account for about 92% of businesses in Ghana. In the Republic of South Africa, it is estimated that 91% of the formal business entities are SMEs. They also contribute between 52 to 57% to GDP and provide about 61% to employment. Notwithstanding the recognition of the important roles SMEs play in these countries, their development is largely constrained by a number of factors, such as lack of access to appropriate technology; limited access to international markets, the existence of laws, regulations and rules that impede the development of the sector; weak institutional capacity, lack of management skills and training, and most importantly finance. We will write a custom essay sample on Issues in Sme Development in Ghana and South Africa or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The paper provides some relevant recommendations to policy makers, development agencies, entrepreneurs, and SME managers to ascertain the appropriate strategy to improve the SME sector in these countries. Keywords: SME Development, Ghana, South Africa 1. 0. Introduction There is growing recognition of the important role small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play in economic development. They are often described as efficient and prolific job creators, the seeds of big businesses and the fuel of national economic engines. Even in the developed industrial economies, it is the SME sector rather than the multinationals that is the largest employer of workers (Mullineux, 1997). Interest in the role of SMEs n the development process continues to be in the forefront of policy debates in most countries. Governments at all levels have undertaken initiatives to promote the growth of SMEs (Feeney and Riding, 1997). SME development can encourage the process of both inter and intra-regional decentralization; and, they may well become a countervailing force against the economic power of larger enterprises. More generally, the development of SMEs is seen as accelerating the achievement of wider economi c and socio-economic objectives, including poverty alleviation (Cook and Nixson, 2000). According to an OECD report, SMEs produce about 25% of OECD exports and 35% of AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s exports (OECD, 1997). International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) 219 SMEs represent over 90% of private business and contribute to more than 50% of employment and of GDP in most African countries (UNIDO, 1999). Small enterprises in Ghana are said to be a characteristic feature of the production landscape and have been noted to provide about 85% of manufacturing employment of Ghana (Steel and Webster, 1991; Aryeetey, 2001). SMEs are also believed to contribute about 70% to GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP and account for about 92% of businesses in Ghana. Similarly, in the Republic of South Africa, it is estimated that 91% of the formal business entities are Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) (Hassbroeck, 1996; Berry et al. , 2002). They also contribute between 52 and 57% to GDP and provide about 61% of employment (CSS, 1998; Ntsika, 1999; Gumede, 2000; Berry et al. , 2002). SMEs therefore have a crucial role to play in stimulating growth, generating employment and contributing to poverty alleviation, given their economic weight in African countries. How do SMEs in Ghana compare with their counterparts in South Africa and what policy lessons can be drawn for both countries to enhance the contribution of the sector remains the focus of this paper. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section two reviews the various definitions of SMEs. Section three discusses the characteristics of SMEs in developing countries. Sections four and five examine the contributions of SMEs to economic development and the constraints to SME developments. The paper concludes in section six. 2. 0. What is an SME? The issue of what constitutes a small or medium enterprise is a major concern in the literature. Different authors have usually given different definitions to this category of business. SMEs have indeed not been spared with the definition problem that is usually associated with concepts which have many components. The definition of firms by size varies among researchers. Some attempt to use the capital assets while others use skill of labour and turnover level. Others define SMEs in terms of their legal status and method of production. Storey (1994) tries to sum up the danger of using size to define the status of a firm by stating that in some sectors all firms may be regarded as small, whilst in other sectors there are possibly no firms which are small. The Bolton Committee (1971) first formulated an Ã¢â¬Å"economicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"statisticalÃ¢â¬ definition of a small firm. Under the Ã¢â¬Å"economicÃ¢â¬ definition, a firm is said to be small if it meets the following three criteria: Ã¢â¬ ¢ It has a relatively small share of their market place; Ã¢â¬ ¢ It is managed by owners or part owners in a personalized way, and not through the medium of a formalized management structure; Ã¢â¬ ¢ It is independent, in the sense of not forming part of a large enterprise. Under the Ã¢â¬Å"statisticalÃ¢â¬ definition, the Committee proposed the following criteria:: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The size of the small firm sector and its contribution to GDP, employment, exports, etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The extent to which the small firm sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s economic contribution has changed over time; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Applying the statistical definition in a cross-country comparison of the small firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ economic contribution. The Bolton Committee applied different definitions of the small firm to different sectors. Whereas firms in manufacturing, construction and mining were defined in terms of number of employees (in which case, 200 or less qualified the firm to be a small firm), those in the retail, services, wholesale, etc. were defined in terms of monetary turnover (in which case the range is 50,000-200,000 British Pounds to be classified as small firm). Firms in the road transport industry are classified as small if they have 5 or fewer vehicles. There have been criticisms of the Bolton definitions. These centre mainly on the apparent inconsistencies between defining characteristics based on number of employees and those based on managerial approach. The European Commission (EC) defined SMEs largely in term of the number of employees as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ firms with 0 to 9 employees micro enterprises; 220 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) Ã¢â¬ ¢ 10 to 99 employees small enterprises; Ã¢â¬ ¢ 100 to 499 employees medium enterprises. Thus, the SME sector is comprised of enterprises (except agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing) which employ less than 500 workers. In effect, the EC definitions are based solely on employment rather than a multiplicity of criteria. Secondly, the use of 100 employees as the small firmÃ¢â¬â¢s upper limit is more appropriate, given the increase in productivity over the last two decades (Storey, 1994). Finally, the EC definition did not assume the SME group is homogenous; that is, the definition makes a distinction between micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises. However, the EC definition is too all-embracing to be applied to a number of countries. Researchers would have to use definitions for small firms which are more appropriate to their particular Ã¢â¬Å"targetÃ¢â¬ group (an operational definition). It must be emphasized that debates on definitions turn out to be sterile, unless size is a factor which influences performance. For instance, the relationship between size and performance matters when assessing the impact of a credit programme on a target group (Storey, 1994). Weston and Copeland (1998) hold that definitions of size of enterprises suffer from a lack of universal applicability. In their view, this is because enterprises may be conceived of in varying terms. Size has been defined in different contexts, in terms of the number of employees, annual turnover, industry of enterprise, ownership of enterprise, and value of fixed assets. Van der Wijst (1989) considers small and medium businesses as privately held firms with 1 Ã¢â¬â 9 and 10 Ã¢â¬â 99 people employed, respectively. Jordan et al (1998) define SMEs as firms with fewer than 100 employees and less than Ã¢â ¬15 million turnover. Michaelas et al (1999) consider small independent private limited companies with fewer than 200 employees and Lopez and Aybar (2000) considered companies with sales below Ã¢â ¬15 million as small. According to the British Department of Trade and Industry, the best description of a small firm remains that used by the Bolton Committee in its 1971 Report on Small Firms. This stated that a small firm is an independent business, managed by its owner or part-owners and having a small market share (Department of Trade and Industry, 2001). The UNIDO also defines SMEs in terms of number of employees by giving different classifications for industrialized and developing countries (see Elaian, 1996). The definition for industrialized countries is given as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Large firms with 500 or more workers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medium firms with 100-499 workers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Small firms with 99 or less workers. The classification given for developing countries is as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Large firms with 100 or more workers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medium firms with 20-99 workers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Small firms with 5-19 workers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Micro firms with less than 5 workers. It is clear from the various definitions that there is not a general consensus over what constitutes an SME. Definitions vary across industries and also across countries. It is important now to examine definitions of SMEs given in the context of Ghana and South Africa. 2. 1. The Ghanaian Situation There have been various definitions given for small-scale enterprises in Ghana but the most commonly used criterion is the number of employees of the enterprise (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). In applying this definition, confusion often arises in respect of the arbitrariness and cut off points used by the various official sources. In its Industrial Statistics, the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) considers firms with fewer than 10 employees as small-scale enterprises and their counterparts with more than 10 employees as medium and large-sized enterprises. Ironically, the GSS in its national accounts considered companies with up to 9 employees as SMEs (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). The value of fixed assets in the firm has also been used as an alternative criterion for defining SMEs. However, the National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) in Ghana applies both the International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) 221 Ã¢â¬Å"fixed asset and number of employeesÃ¢â¬ criteria. It defines a small-scale enterprise as a firm with not more than 9 workers, and has plant and machinery (excluding land, buildings and vehicles) not exceeding 10 million Ghanaian cedis. The Ghana Enterprise Development Commission (GEDC), on the other hand, uses a 10 million Ghanaian cedis upper limit definition for plant and machinery. It is important to caution that the process of valuing fixed assets poses a problem. Secondly, the continuous depreciation of the local currency as against major trading currencies often makes such definitions outdated (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). In defining small-scale enterprises in Ghana, Steel and Webster (1991), and Osei et al (1993) used an employment cut-off point of 30 employees. Osei et al (1993), however, classified small-scale enterprises into three categories. These are: (i) micro employing less than 6 people; (ii) very small employing 6-9 people; (iii) small between 10 and 29 employees. A more recent definition is the one given by the Regional Project on Enterprise Development Ghana manufacturing survey paper. The survey report classified firms into: (i) micro enterprise, less than 5 employees; (ii) small enterprise, 5 29 employees; (iii) medium enterprise, 30 Ã¢â¬â 99 employees; (iv) large enterprise, 100 and more employees (see Teal, 2002). 2. 2. The South African Situation The most widely used framework in South Africa is the definition of the National Small Business Act 102 of 1996, which defines five categories of businesses in South Africa. The definition uses the number of employees (the most common mode of definition) per enterprise size category combined with the annual turnover categories, the gross assets excluding fixed property. The definitions for the various enterprise categories are given as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Survivalist enterprise: The income generated is less than the minimum income standard or the poverty line. This category is considered pre-entrepreneurial, and includes hawkers, vendors and subsistence farmers. (In practice, survivalist enterprises are often categorised as part of the micro-enterprise sector). Micro enterprise: The turnover is less than the VAT registration limit (that is, R150 000 per year). These enterprises usually lack formality in terms of registration. They include, for example, spaza shops, minibus taxis and household industries. They employ no more than 5 people. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Very small enterprise: These are enterprises employing fewer than 10 paid employees, except mining, electricity, manufacturing and construction sectors, in which the figure is 20 employees. These enterprises operate in the formal market and have access to technology. Small enterprise: The upper limit is 50 employees. Small enterprises are generally more established than very small enterprises and exhibit more complex business practices. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Medium enterprise: The maximum number of employees is 100, or 200 for the mining, electricity, manufacturing and construction sectors. These enterprises are often characterised by the decentralisation of power to an additional management layer. The National Small Business ActÃ¢â¬â¢s definitions of the different categories of business may be summarised as set out in Table 1 below. 222 Table 1: International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) Definitions of SMMEs given in the National Small Business Act Number of Employees Fewer than 100 to 200, depending on industry Fewer than 50 Annual Turnover (in South African rand) Less than R4 million to R50 million, depending upon industry Less than R2 million to R25 million, depending on industry Less than R200 000 to R500 000, depending on industry Less than R150 000 Gross Assets, Excluding Fixed Property Less than R2 million to R18 million, depending on industry Less than R2 million to R4. million, depending on industry Less than R150 000 to R500 000, depending on Industry Less than R100 000 Enterprise Size Medium Small Fewer than 10 to 20, depending on industry Micro Fewer than 5 Source: Falkena et al. (2001) Very Small From the above, two key contrast can be drawn between the definitions of SMEs in Ghana and their counterparts in South Africa. First, Act 102 of 1996 defines SMEs in South Africa whereas th ere is no such legislation in Ghana. Secondly, the cut off points for the various SME size categories in South Africa are much higher than that of Ghana. This may be a result of the fact that South Africa has a much higher income levels than Ghana. 3. 0. Characteristics of SMEs in Developing Countries Fisher and Reuber (2000) enumerate a number of characteristics of SMEs in developing countries under the broad headings: labour characteristics, sectors of activity, gender of owner and efficiency. Given that most SMEs are one-person businesses, the largest employment category is working proprietors. This group makes up more than half the SME workforce in most developing countries; their families, who tend to be unpaid but active in the enterprise, make up roughly another quarter. The remaining portion of the workforce is split between hired workers and trainees or apprentices. SMEs are more labour intensive than larger firms and therefore have lower capital costs associated with job creation (Anheier and Seibel, 1987; Liedholm and Mead, 1987; Schmitz, 1995). In terms of activity, they are mostly engaged in retailing, trading, or manufacturing (Fisher and Reuber, 2000). While it is a common perception that the majority of SMEs will fall into the first category, the proportion of SME activity that takes place in the retail sector varies considerably between countries, and between rural and urban regions within countries. Retailing is mostly found in urban regions, while manufacturing can be found in either rural or urban centres. However, the extent of involvement of a country in manufacturing will depend on a number of factors, including, availability of raw materials, taste and consumption patterns of domestic consumers, and the level of development of the export markets. In Ghana, SMEs can be categorized into urban and rural enterprises. The former can be subdivided into Ã¢â¬Å"organizedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unorganizedÃ¢â¬ enterprises. The organized ones mostly have paid employees with a registered office, whereas the unorganized category is mainly made up of artisans who work in open spaces, temporary wooden structures, or at home, and employ few or in some cases no salaried workers (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). They rely mostly on family members or apprentices. Rural enterprises are largely made up of family groups, individual artisans, women engaged in food production from local crops. The major activities within this sector include:- soap and detergents, fabrics, clothing and tailoring, textile and leather, village blacksmiths, tin-smithing, ceramics, timber and mining, bricks and cement, beverages, food processing, bakeries, wood furniture, electronic assembly, agro processing, chemical-based products and mechanics (Osei et al. , 1993; Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). Majority of SMEs are female-owned businesses, which more often than not are home-based compared to those owned by males; they are operated from home and are mostly not considered in official statistics. This clearly affects their chances of gaining access to financing schemes, since such International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) 223 programmes are designed without sufficient consideration of the needs of businesses owned by females. These female entrepreneurs often get the impression that they are not capable of taking advantage of these credit schemes, because the administrative costs associated with the schemes often outweigh the benefits. Prior empirical studies in Ghana have shown that female-owned SMEs often have difficulty accessing finance. Females are mostly involved in sole-proprietorship businesses which are mainly microenterprises and as such may lack the necessary collateral to qualify for loans (Aryeetey et al, 1994; Abor and Biekpe, 2006). Measures of enterprise efficiency (e. g. labour productivity or total factor productivity) vary greatly both within and across industries. Firm size may be associated with some other factors that are correlated with efficiency, such as managerial skill and technology, and the effects of the policy environment. Most studies in developing countries indicate that the smallest firms are the least efficient, and there is some evidence that both small and large firms are relatively inefficient compared to medium-scale enterprises (Little et al. , 1987). It is often argued that SMEs are more innovative than larger firms. Many small firms bring innovations to the market place, but the contribution of innovations to productivity often takes time, and larger firms may have more resources to adopt and implement them (Acs et al. , 1999). 4. 0. Contributions of SMEs to Economic Development There is a general consensus that the performance of SMEs is important for both economic and social development of developing countries. From the economic perspective, SMEs provide a number of benefits (Advani, 1997). SMEs have been noted to be one of the major areas of concern to many policy makers in an attempt to accelerate the rate of growth in low-income countries. These enterprises have been recognized as the engines through which the growth objectives of developing countries can be achieved. They are potential sources of employment and income in many developing countries. SMEs seem to have advantages over their large-scale competitors in that they are able to adapt more easily to market conditions, given their broadly skilled technologies. They are able to withstand adverse economic conditions because of their flexible nature (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). SMEs are more labour intensive than larger firms and therefore have lower capital costs associated with job creation (Anheier and Seibel, 1987; Liedholm and Mead, 1987; Schmitz, 1995). They perform useful roles in ensuring income stability, growth and employment. Since SMEs are labour intensive, they are more likely to succeed in smaller urban centres and rural areas, where they can contribute to a more even distribution of economic activity in a region and can help to slow the flow of migration to large cities. Due to their regional dispersion and their labour intensity, it is argued, small-scale production units can promote a more equitable distribution of income than large firms. They also improve the efficiency of domestic markets and make productive use of scarce resources, thus facilitating long-term economic growth (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). SMEs contribute to a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national product by either manufacturing goods of value, or through the provision of services to both consumers and/or other enterprises. This encompasses the provision of products and, to a lesser extent, services to foreign clients, thereby contributing to overall export performance. In Ghana and South Africa, SMEs represent a vast portion of businesses. They represent about 92% of Ghanaian businesses and contribute about 70% to GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP and over 80% to employment. SMEs also account for about 91% of the formal business entities in South Africa, contributing between 52% and 57% of GDP and providing about 61% of employment (CSS, 1998; Ntsika, 1999; Gumede, 2000; Berry et al. , 2002). From an economic perspective, however, enterprises are not just suppliers, but also consumers; this plays an important role if they are able to position themselves in a market with purchasing power: their demand for industrial or consumer goods will stimulate the activity of their suppliers, just as their own activity is stimulated by the demands of their clients. Demand in the form of investment plays a dual role, both from a demand-side (with regard to the suppliers of industrial goods) and on the supplyside (through the potential for new production arising from upgraded equipment). In addition, demand 224 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) is important to the income-generation potential of SMEs and their ability to stimulate the demand for both consumer and capital goods (Berry et al. , 2002). 5. 0. General Constraints to SME Development Despite the potential role of SMEs to accelerated growth and job creation in developing countries, a number of bottlenecks affect their ability to realize their full potential. SME development is hampered by a number of factors, including finance, lack of managerial skills, equipment and technology, regulatory issues, and access to international markets (Anheier and Seibel, 1987; Steel and Webster, 1991; Aryeetey et al, 1994; Gockel and Akoena, 2002). The lack of managerial know-how places significant constraints on SME development. Even though SMEs tend to attract motivated managers, they can hardly compete with larger firms. The scarcity of management talent, prevalent in most countries in the region, has a magnified impact on SMEs. The lack of support services or their relatively higher unit cost can hamper SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ efforts to improve their management, because consulting firms are often not equipped with appropriate cost-effective management solutions for SMEs. Besides, despite the numerous institutions providing training and advisory services, there is still a skills gap in the SME sector as a whole (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). This is because entrepreneurs cannot afford the high cost of training and advisory services while others do not see the need to upgrade their skills due to complacency. In terms of technology, SMEs often have difficulties in gaining access to appropriate technologies and information on available techniques (Aryeetey et al. , 1994). In most cases, SMEs utilize foreign technology with a scarce percentage of shared ownership or leasing. They usually acquire foreign licenses, because local patents are difficult to obtain. Regulatory constraints also pose serious challenges to SME development and although wideranging structural reforms have led to some improvements, prospects for enterprise development remain to be addressed at the firm-level. The high start-up costs for firms, including licensing and registration requirements, can impose excessive and unnecessary burdens on SMEs. The high cost of settling legal claims, and excessive delays in court proceedings adversely affect SME operations. In the case of Ghana, the cumbersome procedure for registering and commencing business are key issues often cited. The World Bank Doing Business Report (2006) indicated that it takes 127 days to deal with licensing issues and there are 16 procedures involved in licensing a business in Ghana. It takes longer (176 days) in South Africa and there were 18 procedures involved in dealing with licensing issues. Meanwhile, the absence of antitrust legislation favours larger firms, while the lack of protection for property rights limits SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ access to foreign technologies (Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). Previously insulated from international competition, many SMEs are now faced with greater external competition and the need to expand market share. However, their limited international marketing experience, poor quality control and product standardisation, and little access to international partners, continue to impede SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ expansion into international markets (Aryeetey et al. , 1994). They also lack the necessary information about foreign markets. One important problem that SMEs often face is access to capital (Lader, 1996). Lack of adequate financial resources places significant constraints on SME development. Cook and Nixson (2000) observe that, notwithstanding the recognition of the role of SMEs in the development process in many developing countries, SMEs development is always constrained by the limited availability of financial resources to meet a variety of operational and investment needs. A World Bank study found that about 90% of small enterprises surveyed stated that credit was a major constraint to new investment (Parker et al. , 1995). Levy (1993) also found that there is limited access to financial resources available to smaller enterprises compared to larger organisations and the consequences for their growth and development. The role of finance has been viewed as a critical element for the development of SMEs (Cook and Nixson, 2000). A large portion of the SME sector does not have access to adequate and appropriate forms of credit and equity, or indeed to financial services more generally (Parker et al. , 1995). In competing for the corporate market, formal financial institutions have structured their products to serve the needs of large corporates. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) 225 A cursory analysis of survey and research results of SMEs in South Africa, for instance, reveals common reactions from SME owners interviewed. When asked what they perceive as constraints in their businesses and especially in establishing or expanding their businesses, they answered that access to funds is a major constraint. This is reflected in perception questions answered by SME owners in many surveys (see BEES, 1995; Graham and Quattara, 1996; Rwingema and Karungu, 1999). This situation is not different in the case of Ghana (see Sowa et al. , 1992; Aryeetey, 1998; Bigsten et al. , 2000, Abor and Biekpe 2006, 2007; Quartey, 2002). A priori, it might seem surprising that finance should be so important. Requirements such as identifying a product and a market, acquiring any necessary property rights or licenses, and keeping proper records are all in some sense more fundamental to running a small enterprise than is finance (Green et al. , 2002). Some studies have consequently shown that a large number of small enterprises fail because of non-financial reasons. Other constraints SMEs face include: lack of access to appropriate technology; the existence of laws, regulations and rules that impede the development of the sector; weak institutional capacity and lack of management skills and training (see Sowa et al. , 1992; Aryeetey et al. , 1994; Parker et al. , 1995; Kayanula and Quartey, 2000). However, potential providers of finance, whether formal or informal, are unlikely to commit funds to a business which they view as not being on a sound footing, irrespective of the exact nature of the unsoundness. Lack of funds may be the immediate reason for a business failing to start or to progress, even when the more fundamental reason lies elsewhere. Finance is said to be the Ã¢â¬Å"glueÃ¢â¬ that holds together all the diverse aspects involved in small business start-up and development (Green et al. , 2002). 6. 0. Conclusion This paper has reviewed various definitions of SMEs and also discussed the characteristics, contributions of SMEs to economic development, and the constraints to SME development. In reviewing the definitions of SMEs, it was concluded that there is no single, universal, uniformly acceptable definition of SMEs. Several measures or indicators have been used to define the SME sector. The most commonly used is the number of employees of the enterprise. However, in applying this definition, confusion often arises in respect of the arbitrariness and cut-off points used by various official sources. The definitions of SMEs within the context of Ghana and South Africa were also examined, given that this paper focuses on these two countries. SMEs often fall into two categories, that is, urban and rural enterprises. The former can be sub-divided into Ã¢â¬Å"organizedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unorganizedÃ¢â¬ enterprises. The organized groups have registered offices and paid workers, whilst the unorganized ones are mainly made up of artisans. Rural enterprises are largely made up of family groups and individual artisans. The activities in the SME sector range from pottery and ceramics to manufacturing of spare parts and electronic assembly. SMEs in Ghana and South Africa have a lot of similarities in terms of their characteristics as well as the vital role they play in the two economies. However, they differ in terms of size and regulation. For instance, the cut off point for the various categories of SMEs in Ghana are much lower than they pertain in South Africa. Secondly, whereas a national legislation defines an SME in South Africa, no such Act exist in Ghana. The study also observed that SMEs constitute a vital element of the development process, and their contributions in terms of production, employment and income in developing countries is widely recognized. Hence, interest in the role of SMEs in the development process continues to be high on the agenda of policy makers in the two countries. Notwithstanding the recognition, the development of SMEs is always constrained by a number of factors such as, lack of access to appropriate technology, limited access to international markets, the existence of laws, regulations and rules that impede the development of the sector; weak institutional capacity and lack of management skills and training. However, access to finance remains the greatest concern for the majority of SMEs. This study suggests that, to improve access to credit to SMEs, entrepreneurs should be encouraged to form cooperatives since financial institutions believe peer pressure often reduces the risk 26 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) of default, Secondly, the government through tax incentives can encourage certain training institutions and NGOs to provide training to entrepreneurs on simple record keeping and managerial know-how. Also, a national legislation in Ghana to define what constitutes an SME and their legal as we ll as tax obligations will help to integrate a number of informal enterprises into the formal framework. This should be complemented with steps to minimize the legal procedures involved in doing business in both countries. It is also suggested that technology transfer through simple, inexpensive and adaptable technology should be promoted to enhance the productivity of SMEs. References   Abor, J. and N. Biekpe, 2006. Ã¢â¬Å"Small Business Financing Initiatives in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , Problems and Perspectives in Management, 4(3), pp. 69-77. Abor, J. and N. Biekpe, 2006. Ã¢â¬Å"SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ Access to Debt Finance: A Comparison of Male-Owned and Female-Owned Businesses in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 7(2), pp. 105-112. Abor, J. and N. Biekpe, 2007. Small Business Reliance on Bank Financing in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , Emerging Market Finance Trade, 43(4), pp. 93 Ã¢â¬â 102. Acs, Z. , R. Morck, and B. Young, 1999. Ã¢â¬Å"Productivity Growth and Size DistributionÃ¢â¬ , in Acs, Z. , Carlsson, B. and Karlsson, C. (eds. ), Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Macroeconomy, Cambridge University Press. Advani, A. 1997. Ã¢â¬Å"Industrial Clusters: A Supp ort System for Small and Medium-Sized EnterprisesÃ¢â¬ , Private Sector Development, World Bank Occasional Paper No. 32, World Bank, Washigton, DC. Anheier, H. K. and H. D. Seibel, 1987. Small Scale Industries and Economic Development in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , Business Behaviour and Strategies in Informal Sector Economies, Verlag Breitenbech, Saarbruckh, Germany. Aryeetey, E. 1998. Ã¢â¬Å"Informal Finance for Private Sector Development in AfricaÃ¢â¬ , Economic Research Papers No. 41, The African Development Bank, Abidjan. Aryeetey, E. 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"Priority Research Issues Relating to Regulation and Competition in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , Centre on Regulation and Competition Working Paper Series, University of Manchester, Manchester. Aryeetey, E. , A. Baah-Nuakoh, T. Duggleby, H. Hettige, and W. F. Steel, 1994. Ã¢â¬Å"Supply and Demand for Finance of Small Scale Enterprises in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , Discussion Paper No. 251, World Bank, Washington, DC. BEES, 1995. Guide to the Preliminary Results of the ERU / BEES SME Survey. Berry, A. , M. von Blottnitz, R. Cassim, A. Kesper, B. Rajaratnam, and D. E. van Seventer, 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"The Economics of SMMEs in South AfricaÃ¢â¬ , Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies, Johannesburg, South Africa. Bigsten, A. , P. Collier, S. Dercon, M. Fafchamps, B. Guthier, J. W. Gunning, M. Soderbom, A. Oduro, R. Oostendorp, C. Patillo, F. Teal, A. Zeufack, 2000. Credit Constraints in Manufacturing Enterprises in AfricaÃ¢â¬ , Working Paper WPS/2000. Centre for the study of African Economies, Oxford University, Oxford. Bolton, J. E. 1971. Ã¢â¬Å"Report of the Committee of Inquiry on Small FirmsÃ¢â¬ , HMSO, London. Cook, P. and F. Nixson, 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"Finance and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ , IDPM, University of Manchester, Finance and Development Research Programme Working Paper Series, Paper No 14. CSS, 1998. Ã¢â¬Å"Employment and Unemployment in South Africa 1994-1997Ã¢â¬ , South Africa. Department of Trade and Industry, 2001. Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Ã¢â¬â Definitions, http://www. dti. gov. uk/SME4/define. htm. Elaian, K. 1996. Employment Implications of Small Scale Industries in Developing Countries: Evidence from Jordan, Science, Technology and Development, 14(1), pp. 80-101.                International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010)  227                    Falkena, H. , I. Abedian, M. Blottnitz, C. Coovadia, G. Davel, J. Madungandaba, E. Masilela, and S. Rees, S. , 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ Access to Finance in South Africa, A Supply-Side Regulatory ReviewÃ¢â¬ , The Task Group of the policy Board for Financial Services and Regulation, www. finance. gov. za/documents/smes. Feeney, L. S. and A. L. Riding, 1997. Business OwnersÃ¢â¬â¢ Fundamental Tradeoff: Finance and the Vicious Circle of Growth and Control, Canadian Business Owner, November. Fisher, E. and R. Reuber, 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"Industrial Clusters and SME Promotion in Developing CountriesÃ¢â¬ , Commonwealth Trade and Enterprise Paper No. 3. Gockel, A. G. and S. K. Akoena, 2002. Financial Intermediation for the Poor: Credit Demand by Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Ghana. A Further Assignment for Financial Sector Policy? Ã¢â¬ , IFLIP Research Paper 02-6, International Labour Organisation. Graham, D. and K. Quattara, 1996. Report on Rural Finance in Two Provinces in South Africa, Prepared for the Development Bank of Southern Africa . Green, C. J. , P. Kimuyu, R. Manos, and V. Murinde, 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"How do Small Firms in Developing Countries Raise Capital? Evidence from a Large-Scale Survey of Kenyan Micro and Small Scale EnterprisesÃ¢â¬ , Economic Research Paper No. 2/6, Centre for International, Financial and Economics Research, Department of Economics, Loughborough University. Gumede, V. 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"Growth and Exporting of Small and Medium Enterprises in South Africa, Some Thoughts on Policy and Scope for Further ResearchÃ¢â¬ , Trade and Industrial Policy Strategies, South Africa. Hassbroeck, D. 1996. Ã¢â¬Å"Entrepreneurship Training for the Informal Sector in South Africa, in Educating Entrepreneurs in Modernising EconomiesÃ¢â¬ , Aldershot, Hants: Avebury. Jordan, J. , J. Lowe, and P. Taylor, 1998. Ã¢â¬Å"Strategy and Financial Policy in U. K. Small FirmsÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Business Finance and Accounting, 25(1/2), pp. Ã¢â¬â27. Kayanula, D. and P. Quartey, 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"The Policy Environment for Pr omoting Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Ghana and MalawiÃ¢â¬ , Finance and Development Research Programme, Working Paper Series, Paper No 15, IDPM, University of Manchester. Lader, P. 1996. Ã¢â¬Å"The Public/Private PartnershipÃ¢â¬ , Springs Spring, 35(2), pp. 41-44. Levy, B. , A. Berry, and J. Nugent, 1999. Ã¢â¬Å"Supporting the Export Activities of Small and Medium Enterprise (SME)Ã¢â¬ , in Levy, B. , Berry, A. and Nugent, J. B. (eds. ), Fulfilling the Export Potential of Small and medium Firms, Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Liedholm, C. and D. Mead, 1987. Small Scale Industries in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence and Policy ImplicationsÃ¢â¬ , International Development Paper No. 9, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Little, I. M. , D. Mazumdar, and J. M. Page, 1987. Ã¢â¬Å"Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Comparative Analysis of India and Other EconomiesÃ¢â¬ , New York, Oxford University Press . Lopez, G. J. and A. C. Aybar, 2000. Ã¢â¬Å"An Empirical Approach to the Financial Behaviour of Small and Medium Sized CompaniesÃ¢â¬ , Small Business Economics, 14, pp. 55-63. Michaelas, N. , F. Chittenden, and P. Poutziouris, 1999. Financial Policy and Capital Structure Choice in U. K. SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Company Panel DataÃ¢â¬ , Small Business Economics, 12, 113-130. Millinuex, A. W. 1997. Ã¢â¬Å"The Funding of Non-Financial Corporations (NFCs) in the EU (19711993): Evidence of ConvergenceÃ¢â¬ , Mimeo, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham. Ntsika, 1999. Ã¢â¬Å"State of Small Business in South AfricaÃ¢â¬ , SARB Quarterly Bulletins; and Stats SA Releases, South Africa. OECD, 1997. Globalisation and Small and Medium Enterprises, Synthesis Report, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Osei, B. , A. Baah-Nuakoh, K. A. Tutu, and N. K. Sowa, 1993. Impact of Structural Adjustment on Small-Scale Enterprises in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , in Helmsing, A. H . J. and Kolstee, T. H. 228 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 39 (2010) (eds. ), Structural Adjustment, Financial Policy and Assistance Programmes in Africa, IT Publications, London. Parker, R. , R. Riopelle, and W. Steel, 1995. Ã¢â¬Å"Small Enterprises Adjusting to Liberalisation in Five African CountriesÃ¢â¬ , World Bank Discussion Paper, No 271, African Technical Department Series, The World Bank, Washington DC. Quartey, P. 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"Financing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in GhanaÃ¢â¬ , Journal of African Business, 4, pp. 7-56. Rwingema, H. and P. Karungu, 1999. Ã¢â¬Å"SMME Development in JohannesburgÃ¢â¬â¢s Southern Metropolitan Local Council: An AssessmentÃ¢â¬ Development Southern Africa 16(1). Schmitz, H. 1995. Ã¢â¬Å"Collective Efficiency: Growth Path for Small Scale IndustryÃ¢â¬ , The Journal of Development Studies, 31(4), pp. 529-566. Sowa, N. K. , A. Baah-Nuakoh, K. A. Tutu, and B. Osei, 1992. Ã¢â¬Å"Small Enterprise and Adj ustment, The Impact of GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Recovery Programme on Small-Scale Industrial EnterprisesÃ¢â¬ , Research Reports, Overseas Development Institute, 111 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7JD. Steel, W. F. and L. M. Webster, 1991. Ã¢â¬Å"Small Enterprises in Ghana: Responses to Adjustment IndustryÃ¢â¬ , Series Paper, No. 33, The World Bank Industry and Energy Department, Washington DC. Storey, D. , 1994. Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the Small Business SectorÃ¢â¬ , Routledge, London. Teal, F. , 2002. Ã¢â¬Å"Background Information On Use Of Dataset: Regional Project On Enterprise Development (RPED) Ghana Manufacturing Sector Survey Waves I-V (1992-98)Ã¢â¬ , Centre for the Study of African Economies, Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford, OX1 3UL. UNIDO, 1983. The Potential for Resource-based Industrial Development in the Least Developed CountriesÃ¢â¬â¢, No. 5 Malawi. UNIDO, 1999. SMEs in Africa Survive against all Odds, http://www. unido. org/doc/view? document_id=3927language_code=en. Van der Wijst, D. , 1989. Ã¢â¬Å"Financial Structure in Small Business. Theory, Tests and ApplicationsÃ¢â¬ , Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Vol. 320, New York: Springer-Verlag. Weston, J. F. and Copeland, T. E. , 1998. Ã¢â¬Å"Managerial FinanceÃ¢â¬ , CBS College Publishing, New York.            
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Biology of diseases Essays Biology of diseases Essay Biology of diseases Essay Introduction Brian, age 52, is an old instructor, experiencing unwell for several months. Presented, He had non been kiping at all good, frequently acquiring up in the dark to urinate, and was experiencing highly fatigued and besides noticed that his mortise joints seemed conceited. Blood and urine trial revealed that Brian was enduring from nephrotic syndrome. Further nephritic biopsy is done and cellular pathology study is need to be diagnosed the chief cause of Brian symptoms. In this study we are traveling to discourse, how kidney disease can be progressive, taking to end-stage nephritic disease and the Current methods to name kidney disease and, in peculiar, progressive kidney disease, include supervising piss for elevated protein degrees and carry oning nephritic biopsies and available interventions for kidney disease, specifically progressive kidney disease. ( 1,14 ) The presence of nephrotic-range albuminurias, hydrops, lipemia, and hypoalbuminemia is defined as nephrotic syndrome. ( 7 ) Excessive protein elimination ( 3.5g or more ) characterizes nephrotic scope albuminuria. ( 7,9,14 ) A aggregation of clinical findings which is a consequence of monolithic nephritic losingss of protein is called nephrotic syndrome, which is non a disease, but manifestation of different glomerular diseases. ( 7,17,22 ) If kidney harm is advanced, waste merchandises such as creatinine and urea N may construct up in the blood. ( 4,9 ) Proteinuria and Hypoalbuminemia, with plasma albumens degree less than 3gm/dl and hydrops of the mortise joints suggest the clinical characteristic that reveals Brian is enduring with nephrotic syndrome. ( 1,7,22 ) Additionally biopsy and the cellular pathology findings as showed in Fig 1 and Fig 2 revealed membranous glomerulonephritis. In grownup s membranous glomerulonephritis histories for about 30 % of the instances of nephrotic syndrome, ( 1,7,11 ) which is diagnosed by nephritic biopsy and seen by light microscopy with H A ; E staining demoing the thickener of the glomerular cellar membrane walls with some glomeruli wholly sclerosed, is the basic alteration in membranous glomerulonephritis which are both scattered and unvarying and accompanied small in the manner of cellular proliferation. ( 1,7 ) , The presence of spikes along the cellar membrane in the presence of argyrophilic stuff projecting out from the glomerular cellar membrane towards the epithelial infinite is indicated by Ag staining. Intense thickener of the glomerular capillary walls occur if the disease farther progresses unsteadily, utilizing anadiplosis of the glomerular cellar membrane. ( 7,11,14 ) The presences of electron-dense immune composite s sedimentations are revealed by negatron microscopy. Which farther on immunofluorescence are foun d to incorporate IgG which is normally accompanied by C3 in a typical farinaceous form demarcate the glomerular cellar membrane. In similar advanced conditions, the strength of IgG staining may be moderated. ( 8,18 ) The analysis of Immunoglobulin G subclass is of import in placing membrane glomerulonephritis underlying the anti-glomerular cellar membrane disease. ( 19 ) 60 % of persons with membranous glomerulonephritis show proteinuria conserves of which merely 40 % suffer from this disease which terminates to renal failure after 2 to 20 old ages. ( 7,22 ) Fractional or comprehensive decrease of albuminuria with auxiliary benign class is seen in 10 % to 30 % of persons. Persons between the ages of 30 to 50 old ages are more at the hazard of developing the disease, as it bit by bit progresses with no known cause. ( 7 ) Membrane glomerulonephritis is a signifier of chronic immune complex Brights disease. It is an autoimmune disease. Chronic nephritic failure is accounted in a big per centum of patients by glomerulonephritis, which is most often known as nephrotic syndrome and sometimes as symptomless albuminuria with or without the presence of high blood pressure. ( 11,14 ) It is a taking cause of nephrotic syndrome in grownups. Figure 3. Possible Mechanisms of the Formation of Subepithelial Deposits in Experimental Models and Patients with, Membranous Nephropathy. ( 24 ) Antibodies and glomerular sedimentations of Ig prompt membranous glomerulonephritis. ( 19 ) Injury ensuing from deposition of soluble go arounding antigen-antibody composites in the glomerulus and hurt by antibodies responding in situ within the glomerulus, either with indissoluble fixed glomerular antigen or with molecule planted within the glomerulus can set up hurt associated with antibody. ( 8 ) In add-on glomerular hurt can be caused by antibodies directed against glomerular cell constituents. In the membranous glomerulonephritis, the mark of hurt is the glomerular splanchnic epithelial cell or podocyte which is a extremely specialised and significantly differentiated cell that rests on the exterior of the glomerular cellar membrane. ( 7, 8,18 ) Further, albuminuria follows the formation of sub epithelial sedimentations, which is linked by podocyte flattening and effacement. With the transition of clip, addition in the accretion of extracellular matrix protein synthesis by podoc ytes causes inspissating of glomerular cellar membrane. ( 7,14 ) Scientists have focused on the theoretical accounts of rats for inactive Heymann Brights disease to develop specific therapy for membranous glomerulonephritis. ( 20 ) ( Resembles human disease ) Membranous glomerulonephritis is an immune-mediated disease as the first country of hunt was to place the antigen responsible for the membranous lesion was suggested to researches by presence of sub epithelial sedimentations. ( 1, 14 ) A 2nd major country of research has been recognized that antibody adhering to the membranous antigen activates complement, taking to the interpolation of C5b-9 ( membrane onslaught composite ) into the podocyte plasma membrane. ( 8,19 ) Over the past 10 old ages surveies it has been clearly documented the critical function for C5b-9-induced podocyte hurt taking to the development of albuminuria. ( 9 ) The mechanisms underlying the podocyte response to C5b-9 hurt, which include hypertrophy, matrix production, and the care of a well-differentiated and inactive phenotype, to find how these events translate into albuminurias and progressive glomerulosclerosis is the 3rd country of research. ( 9,18,14 ) This survey provides farther penetrations into the complexnesss of C5b-9-induced hurt to podocytes, and besides into the pathogenesis of membranous glomerulonephritis. The constituents of the nephrotic syndrome bear a logical relationship to one another. Increased permeableness to plasma proteins is the effect of disorganization in the capillary walls of the glomeruli, proteins flight from the plasma into the glomerular filtrate by increased permeableness ensuing from their structural or physiochemical changes. ( 7, 22 ) Figure 4. Overview of pathophysiology of edema formation in nephrotic syndrome ( 25 ) Due to the fact that Brian had long hours standing occupation he developed reduced serum albumen, which resulted in hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia and primary keeping of salt and H2O by the kidney consequence from bead in plasma colloid osmotic force per unit area, is the generalised hydrops of the nephrotic syndrome. ( 1, 7 ) As fluid escapes the vascular tree into the tissues there is an associated bead in the plasma volume, with lessened glomerular filtration. ( 7 ) The cause of membranous glomerulonephritis is idiopathic. Often, separating between idiopathic and secondary causes is non possible based on clinical grounds entirely, 85 % of instances of membranous glomerulonephritis is idiopathic. ( 14 ) Lupus and hepatitis, attendant mesangial or subendothelial sedimentations may be present in secondary membranous glomerulonephritis including infections like hepatitis B, pox, bilharzia, malaria, malignant tumours peculiarly carcinoma of the lung and colon melanoma every bit good as exposure to inorganic salts ( gold, quicksilver ) and drugs like penicilamine, caporal, no steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. ( 7,21 ) Available interventions for kidney disease, specifically progressive kidney disease, include the usage of steroids, alkylating agents and cyclosporine. ( 15 ) This intervention is controversial because of the variable class of the disease, the overall effectivity of corticoids and other immunosuppressive therapy in commanding the advancement of the disease has been hard to measure. ( 15, 21 ) The above mentioned diagnostic methods frequently are unequal since important harm to the kidney can happen prior to diagnosing. ( 1 ) The above mentioned interventions often are unsuccessful in holding the patterned advance of kidney disease and, hence, unsatisfactory, since they frequently are accompanied by inauspicious side effects, such as cellular and systemic toxicity. The methods described here in aid for naming, handling, holding the patterned advan ce and cut downing the badness of kidney disease in a human. ( 7,15 ) The methods provide an effectual mode to handle kidney disease and, finally, prevent end-stage nephritic disease. Successful intervention of the implicit in cause may be healing as a low-salt diet is a cardinal to cut downing anasarca. ( 21 ) Protein limitations may or may non be utile in cut downing the rate of patterned advance of chronic nephritic failure. Diuretic drugs help in commanding hydrops particularly Loop water pills are most frequently used. NSAIDs aid to diminish the albuminuria and have been mostly supplanted by angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitors and angiotonin II receptor blockers ( ARBs ) . ACE inhibitors decrease albuminurias and command high blood pressure ; ARBs are used for patients intolerant of ACE inhibitors. ( 15 ) Hepatic 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors help in handling hypercholesteremia. ( 21 ) Routine anticoagulation is controversial as anticoagulation is by and large continued indefinitely and Antivirals may be utile in hepatitis-associated membranous kidney disease. ( 15,21, ) A younger patient presented with similar symptoms but no abnormalcies were shown with the light microscope, the glomeruli seem normal. No staining were found utilizing immunohistochemistry. Proximal convoluted tubules are loaded to a great extent with droplets of proteins and lipoids, but this is secondary to the cannular resorption go throughing through the glomeruli of the lipoproteins. When it is placed under negatron microscope its shows the uniform and spread effacement of the pes processes of the podocytes. ( 7,23 ) The cytol appears flattened of the podocytes over the external facets of the glomerular cellar membrane, pulverizing the nexus of the arcades between the glomerular cellar membrane and the podocytes. Therefore, electron microscope revealed minimal-changed disease. Minimal alteration disease is one of the common causes of nephrotic syndrome, the name is given to the infection that follows on from heavy escape of protein into the piss. It may develop at any age but it is most common between ages 1 and 7 old ages. ( 7 ) Minimal alteration disease normally responds good to intervention with high doses of Pediapred. ( 15,21 ) This frequently discontinues the protein leak within yearss or hebdomads, although it may take longer in grownups. The dosage of steroids is so bit by bit reduced. Decision This study has presented grounds to back up the impression that when nephritic map is impeded due to conditions such as membranous glomerulonephritis, early intervention steps must be implemented to forestall nephritic failure. Corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive therapies were employed to get the better of the nephritic disfunction and stabilise the patient. ( 15,21 ) If these steps were non taken, nephritic disfunction may go on to deteriorate and ensue in inauspicious nephritic disease. This syndrome has been identified as a status that may finally take autoimmune conditions ( Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE ) . ( 15 ) Bibliography: 1. Cattran, C ( 2001 ) Idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis , Kidney International, 59, pp:1983-1994 2. Couser WG. Pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 1993 ; 44: S19-S26 3. Deschenes, G. Feraille, E. Doucet, A. ( 2003 ) Mechanisms Of Oedema In Nephrotic Syndrome: Old Theories And New Ideas , Nephrology Dialysis Transplant, 18 ( 3 ) , Pp: 454-456. 4. Black, R. ( 2006 ) Clinical Problems In Nephrology. New York: Small, Brown And Company. 5. Lennon, R. Watson, L. Webb, N ( 2009 ) Nephrotic Syndrome In Children , Peadiatrics And Child Health, 20 ( 1 ) , Pp:35-42. 6. Mckinney, P, A. Feltbower, R, G. Brockelbank, J. ( 2001 ) Time Trends And Ethnic Patterns Of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome In Yorkshire, UK , Paediatric Nephrology, California: INPA16. Pp: 1040-1044. 7. Kumar, V. Abbas, A. Fausto, N. Aster, J, C. ( 2010 ) Robins And Cotran Pathological Basis Of Disease. 8th Edition. Philadelphia: Saunders 8. Mclean, R. Micheal, A. Roy, L, P. ( 1973 ) Immunological Aspects of the Nephrotic Syndrome , Kidney International, Minnesota, 3.pp:105-115. 9. Chinar, F, P. Lauson, H, D. ( 1953 ) A Study Of The Mechanism Of Proteinuria In Patients With The Nephrotic Syndrome , The Hospital Rockfeller Institute For Medical Research.Pp:621-629. 10. Jiang, X. Ke Pana, Li Lin B, Gui-Fang Wang. ( 2009 ) Nephrotic Syndrome And Pulmonary Artery Thrombosis , Respiratory Medicine CME. pp:48-50 11. Ponticelli, C ( 2007 ) Membranous nephropathy , JNephrol, 20, pp:268-286. 12. Monetary value, S, A. Wilson, L, M ( 1997 ) Pathophysiology.5TH Edition. Show me state: Mosby. 13. 14. Wasserstein, A, G. ( 1997 ) Membranous Glomerulonephritis , Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, pp:66-676. 15. Waldman, M ( 2007 ) Adult Minimal-Change Disease: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcomes , Journal of the American Society of Nephrology,2, pp:445-453. 16. MacTIER, R. ( 1986 ) The Natural History of Membranous Nephropathy in the West of Scotland , Quarterly Journal of Medicine,232, pp:793-802. 17. Porth, C, M. ( 2009 ) Pathophysiology. 8TH Edition. Philadelphia: Lipponcott And Wilkins. 18. Couser WG. Mechanisms of glomerular hurt in immune complex glomerulonephritis ( Nephrology Forum ) . Kidney Int 1985 ; 28: 569-583 19. Salant DJ, Natori Y, Shimizu F. Glomerular hurt due to antibody entirely. ( Chapter 17 ) In: Nielson EG, Couser WG, eds Immunologic nephritic diseases. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1977 ; 357-374 20. Mendrick DL, Rennke HG, I. Initiation of albuminuria in the rat by a monoclonal antibody against SPG-115-107. Kidney Int 1988 ; 33: 818-830 21. Baliga, R. , et al. , Oxidant Mechanisms in Toxic Acute Renal Failure, Drug Metabolism Reviews 31 ( 4 ) :971-991 ( 1999 ) . 22. Matfin.G, et Al, 2009, pathophysiology constructs of altered wellness position, ( 8 ) , Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, page no: 843-845 23. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.edren.org/pages/edreninfo/minimal-change-disease.php 24. www.analesdemedicina.com/autoinmunidad/notici 25. www.nature.com/ /v62/n4/fig_tab/4493234f2.html
Thursday, November 21, 2019
ExxonMobil - Essay Example In 38 countries Exxon has its exploration and production utilities and in 23 countries they have the production operation. The company has 38 refineries around the world. Close to 90% chemical business of Exxon is ranked first or second in the world, and they are the market leader in this field. ExxonMobil has invested $5 billion over the last five years in technological up-gradation (About Us, n.d.) Upstream In petroleum industry upstream indicates operation like search, recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. This sector is also known as Exploration and Production sector. Under this division ExxonMobil have the following units- Earning from the upper stream as in 2008 was recorded $35.4 billion. The return on average capital in 2008 was 54% and earning per oil-equivalent barrel was $24.67. The total liquid production and the natural production which was available for sale was 3.9 million oil equivalent per day. The upstream capital and exploration spending was $19.7 billion. The graph indicates that the earnings from the upper division have been increasing constantly. In the year 2007, the earnings were $26497 million which further increased to $35402 by the year 2008. This indicates a sharp rise of 33.61%. This was possible because of the fact that the company managed to increase their production by 3.2 billion barrel oil equivalent per year through out the last five years. The finding and the resource acquisition cost has been gone to $0.66 per barrel which might go high in the coming years. If this happens then the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost of production will go high leading resulting lower earnings in the future. The portfolio of ExxonMobil is one of the largest in the world which includes several units situated in the highly diversified region like extreme deep water heavy oil/oil sand, unconventional gas, arctic, liquefied natural gas, acid on sour